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In immunology, anergy is a state of immune unresponsiveness or hypo-responsiveness to a specific antigen, which results from the failure of T cells or B cells to respond to the antigen.
Anergy can occur naturally or as a result of an intentional manipulation of the immune system. For example, self-reactive T cells can be rendered anergic to prevent autoimmune reactions. Similarly, cancer cells can manipulate the immune system to induce anergy in T cells, which helps them evade immune detection and destruction.
Anergy can also be induced experimentally by exposing T cells to an antigen in the absence of co-stimulatory signals, such as interleukins, that are required for T cell activation. In this case, the T cells become unresponsive to subsequent encounters with the antigen.
In summary, anergy refers to a state of immune unresponsiveness, which can be either natural or induced, and is characterized by a failure of T or B cells to respond to a specific antigen.
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Anergy refers to a state of immunological unresponsiveness or lack of immune response to an antigen that would normally trigger an immune response. Anergy occurs when a lymphocyte, such as a T or B cell, encounters an antigen but fails to receive the co-stimulatory signals that are required for the immune system to mount an effective response.
Anergy can be induced by several mechanisms, including insufficient co-stimulation, signaling through inhibitory receptors, or exposure to certain cytokines. Anergy is considered to be an important mechanism of immune tolerance, as it prevents the immune system from mounting an attack against self-antigens or harmless environmental antigens.
Clinically, anergy is often tested using a skin test, in which a small amount of antigen is injected into the skin, and the immune response is measured by the size of the resulting skin reaction. If no reaction occurs, the individual is said to be anergic to the antigen. Anergy can also occur as a result of certain medical conditions or treatments, such as chronic infections, cancer, or immunosuppressive therapy.
Anergy is a term used in immunology to describe a state of immune unresponsiveness or inactivity. In this state, immune cells such as T cells fail to respond to a specific antigen or foreign substance, despite being activated by other stimuli.
Anergy can occur naturally as a mechanism to prevent autoimmunity, where the immune system attacks the body’s own tissues. It can also be induced experimentally by exposing immune cells to an antigen in the absence of a co-stimulatory signal, resulting in the cells becoming unresponsive to subsequent exposure to the same antigen.
Anergy is an important concept in understanding immune tolerance and dysfunction, as well as in the development of immunotherapies for diseases such as cancer and autoimmune disorders.
Anergy can be caused by a lack of co-stimulatory signals or the presence of inhibitory signals that prevent the immune cells from becoming activated. Co-stimulatory signals are required for the activation of immune cells and the production of an immune response. Without these signals, immune cells may become anergic and fail to respond to the antigen.
Anergy is also a mechanism of peripheral tolerance, which prevents the activation of self-reactive T cells that can cause autoimmune diseases. In healthy individuals, self-reactive T cells are usually eliminated during their development in the thymus, but some may escape and remain in the periphery. These self-reactive T cells can be silenced by anergy to prevent them from attacking self-tissues.
Anergy can also contribute to immunosuppression in cancer patients. Tumor cells can induce anergy in T cells, preventing them from recognizing and attacking the cancer cells. This immune suppression can be overcome by activating the immune system through immunotherapy.
Overall, anergy is a crucial concept in immunology that plays a role in immune tolerance, dysfunction, and immunotherapies.